The concept of the preface is derived from the USA. The vocabulary is derived from Australia, while the words of the preamble were derived from freedom, equality and justice in France.
The preamble is called the soul, the key, the philosophy of the constitution. The introduction begins with the people of India. The following words appear in the preface.
- We the people of India
- Complete sovereignty / sovereignty
- Unity and integrity
- Social, Economic, Political Justice
- Freedom (5 types)
- Similarity (2 types)
We the people of India:The initial words of the Preamble which directly means that the Indian Constitution is dedicated to the Indian people or the ultimate sovereignty lies in the people.
Sovereignty / Full Domination:This means that India’s internal and foreign policy is not subject to anyone and India is completely independent in its foreign policy. There are four important parts of any state or nation such as geographical area, population governance system, sovereignty. Sovereignty is the most important of these four.
Republic:If the head of the country / president is not hereditary, it is called a republic or a republic. The country whose head is directly or indirectly elected, such as India, America, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, is a republic. While Britain, Japan, Bhutan, is a monarchy country.
Democracy: A mechanism that is for the public, by the public and by the public.
- There is representative democracy in India.
- The first democracy in the world is from USA while the largest democracy is from India. India has indirect democracy, while Swaziland has direct democracy.
Socialist:This means that a structure in which there is an equivalent co-ordination in distribution with public control over the main means of production, capital, land, property, etc.
Secularism:All the concepts of secularism exist in the Indian Constitution, that is, all religions are the same in our country and they have the support of the government.
National Integration and Integrity:National unity refers to the sense of unity of the citizens of a nation. Akhandata means every part to be tied to each other.
Fraternity:It literally means a feeling of brotherhood. According to the preamble, two things have to be ensured in fraternity. Honor of the first person and second unity and integrity of the country.
Social, Economic, Political Justice:Social justice means that there should be no discrimination on the basis of caste, varna between human beings and every citizen should have the right opportunities for advancement
Economic justice means that only a few hands are not concentrated in wealth.
Political justice means that all citizens within the state have equal civil and political rights.
Independence: Freedom here refers to civil liberties. The right to freedom can be exercised only within the limits written in the constitution. It provides opportunities for the development of the individual.
Equality:Equality refers to the abolition of privilege or discrimination against any section of society.
Amendment to the preamble:In 1976, the Preamble was amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, to which three new terms – socialist, secular, and integrity, were added.
Interpretation by the Supreme Court:The Preamble was added to the Constitution when the Constitution was already in force. In the Berubari Union case (1960), the Supreme Court held that the preamble is not a part of the Constitution. However, it was accepted that the Preamble could be used as a guiding principle if a word in any Article of the Constitution is unclear.
In the Kesavanand Bharti case (1973), the Supreme Court overturned its earlier decision and stated that the preamble is a part of the Constitution and can be amended under Article 368 of the Constitution. But its basic structure cannot be changed.
Thus the Preamble of the Constitution of Independent India is made up of the role of beautiful words. It includes the basic ideals, objectives and philosophical concepts of the Constitution of India. These provide rationality or impartiality to the constitutional provisions.