The Maurya Empire (322 – 185 AD) was the first large empire of ancient India. The Maurya dynasty ruled India for 137 years. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya with the help of Chanakya defeating King Dhanananda of the Nanda dynasty. The most famous king of this dynasty was Ashoka. Ashoka is called Devanand Priya. Ashoka founded SriNagar.
The Maurya dynasty expanded greatly in the kingdom of Emperor Ashoka. It was due to Ashoka that the Maurya Empire became famous worldwide by becoming the greatest and powerful. The Mauryan Empire began in the east in the Magadha kingdom from the plains of the Ganges River (today Bihar and Bengal). Its capital was Pataliputra (near present-day Patna city). Emperor Ashoka first conceptualized the welfare state, which is also replicated from the Constitution of India.
In the context of the Mauryan Empire, the list of sources is as follows ——–
Secular literature: –
Kautilya’s Arthashastra→ Kautilya / Chanakya is called the Macyveli of India. This is the first authentic book written on politics and public administration. It was first published in 1909 by Dr. Syam Shastri.
Megasthenes Indica→ Megasthenes was an ambassador sent to the court of Chandragupta by Seleucus Nicator (ruler of Syria). Reliable information of Mauryan administration has been obtained from the book Indika. Megasthenes addressed Chandragupta under the name Sendrocottus.
Major inscriptions→There are 14 inscriptions which have been found at eight different places. The seventh and outer records are devoted to religious tolerance. Places names- Dhauli, Shahbaz Garhi, Maan Sehra, Kalsi, Jaugarh, Sopara, Eragudi, Girnar.
Short inscription→Ashoka’s miniature inscriptions, not included in the main section of the fourteen long inscriptions called miniature inscriptions, are derived from the following places – Rupnath, Gujri, Bhabaru, Maski, Sahasram.
Order of Mauryan rulers: –
Chandragupta Maurya→Chandragupta Maurya, with the help of Chanakya defeated Dhanananda and established rule over Magadha. In the Greek writers and Brahmin texts, has been described as a lowly clan. In Buddhist and Jain religions, Chandragupta Maurya has been described as a Kshatriya clan.
Bindusara→Bindusara had friendly relations with foreign rulers. When elder son Sushim failed to reduce the rebellion in Taxila, Bindusara sent Ashoka.. Ashok succeeded in this.
Ashok→The title of Ashoka was ‘Devanapriya’. Which is mentioned from the records. Ashoka conquered Kalinga in 261 AD. Ashoka built the stupa at Sanchi (MP). It has been conferred the status of ‘World Heritage Site’ by UNESCO.
Maurya Administration→Was the first centralized administration of India. The major element of administration was the ‘Weekend Principle’. According to which there were seven successive elements of the state. King, Amatya, District / Nation, Fort, Fund, Army / Force, Friend. Sudarshan Lake was built by Pushyagupta, the Governor of Saurashtra during the Maurya reign.
City administration→According to Megasthenes, the Urban Administration of the Mauryan Government was divided into 6 committees. In order to maintain the discipline of the city and to control crimes, there was a police system called Rakshata. There were three types of officers in the city administration —- Agronoyai (District Magistrate), Antinomoi (Municipal Commissioner), Military Officer.