Buddhism is a knowledge, religion and philosophy derived from the Shraman tradition of India. Buddhism was introduced by Gautama Buddha in the 6th century BC. Gautama Buddha was born in Lumbini in 563 BC, he attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, after which he gave the first sermon at Sarnath. His Mahaparinirvana took place in Kushinagar India in 483 BC. In the next 5 centuries of his Mahaparinirvana, Bodhism spread throughout the Indian subcontinent and spread to Middle Eastern and South-Eastern Asia in the next two thousand years.
The triratna of Buddhism is– Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha
Buddhism is the four Arya Satya: –
- Grief community (cause of grief)
- Grief prevention (Grief can be removed)
- Grief prevention Gamini Antagonist (Way to Eliminate Grief)
Signs and events related to Buddha’s life :-
Conception – Elephant
Planet Renunciation – Horse
Home Disclaimer – Great Reconciliation
Birth – Taurus or bull, lotus
Life character – Lion
Gain knowledge – Enlightened or nirvana
Death – Mahaparinirvan
There are eight holy places :- Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, Kushinagar, Shravasti, Sankasya, Vaishali, Rajgriha
Buddhist literature :- Buddhism religious literature is Tripitaka. The number of Pitakas composed in Pali language is three. Pitakas were divided into bodies.
Vinak Pitaka, Sunt Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka
The main sects of Buddhism are – Hinayana, Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana.
Mahayana (Excellent Way) :-
Followers of Mahayana faith worshiped Lord Buddha by making him an idol instead of a deity. In Mahayana, there could be a transfer of virtue whereas in Hinayana someone would help another person with just example and advice. The Mahayana branch was promoted in Central Asia, China and Japan. One branch of Mahayana is Madhyamika Marg or Nihilism. The proponent of nihilism was Nagarjuna, who is called the Einstein of India.
Hinayana (following route): –
The followers of the Hinayana faith were orthodox. He accepted Buddha’s instructions and rules without any change. The main language of Hinayana was Pali.
Vajrayana Branch: –
The Vajrayana branch of Buddhism emerged in the eighth century. Bengal and Bihar were major centers.
In the center of this branch was ‘Tara’ (Goddess of Shakti), the wives of Buddhist beings.
Contribution of Buddhism to architecture: –
Stupa: The famous spout is- Sanchi Stupa and Bharhut Stupa (both located in Madhya Pradesh), located in Rajgir (Bihar), the World Shanti Stupa is called the tallest Stupa in the world.
Keep in mind – Sanchi’s sputum is not related to any Buddha incident. Sanchi and Bharhut’s spouts were discovered by Alexander Kanidham.
Often a small box is kept inside the stupa. The remains of the body of Buddha or his followers (such as teeth, bones or stones) or any thing or stone used by them are kept in these boxes. This is called metal manjusha.
Viharas – Chaityas were the abode of Buddhist monks. They were made by cutting rocks. Like – Ajanta, Ellora Caves.
Chaitya – It was a place where Buddhist monks worshiped during the rainy season.
Kutagar Shala —- (literally meaning hut with pointed roof) was a place where there was an intellectual debate between Buddhist monks.